1) Brughetti, Romualdo. Nueva historia de la pintura y la escultura en la Argentina: De los orígenes a nuestros días (Buenos Aires: Ediciones de Arte Gaglianone, 1991), 111.

2) Ibid.

3) The primary source material I have drawn upon for this biographical essay is a collection of Chale's papers, correspondence and travel notes from the late 1940s and early 1950s which were preserved by the Bonino Gallery in Buenos Aires. The Bonino Gallery put on posthumous exhibitions of Chale's work in Buenos Aires in 1956, 1960, 1963 and 1967 and in their Rio de Janeiro gallery in 1962, and also facilitated an exhibition of Chale's work at the Galleria d'Arte Selecta in Rome in 1956. They retained this small collection of Chale's writings until recently, when they were acquired by San Francisco collector James Judd.

4) Neuman, Mauricio, "Gertrudis Chale: Recordando a una gran artista," Archivos del Presente (Buenos Aires: Fundación Foro del Sur), Año 5, número 19, January 2000, 209. Neuman states that Chale was actually born Gertrudis Schale but does not indicate at what point she changed the spelling of her name. It would seem evident that such a change was the practical result of her emigration to Spain and then South America (if not even earlier in France). Now the University of Applied Arts, the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts (Die Angewandte) was established in 1867 as part of the Museum of Art and Industry, and quickly became one of the most important schools of art in Europe. By around the turn of the century it had become a center of the avant-garde, and counted the most renowned members of the Vienna Secession, men such as Josef Hoffman, Kolo Moser, and Arthur Strasser, among its faculty.

5) " Ibid

6) Ibid. Chale does not offer dates, but her account suggests that she would have gone from Geneva to Paris in the mid 1920s. The mention of Chale's husband is found in another piece of her writing, but she includes no name or other description. Mauricio Neuman confirms that Chale married in Paris, to a "fellow fugitive," and explains that they divorced shortly after they emigrated to South America.

7) Gertrudis Chale. Exhibit catalog (Buenos Aires: Galería Bonino, 1967).

8) Ibid.

9) Ibid.

10) Ibid.

11) Neuman, 211.

12) Ibid., 217.

13) Ibid.

14) Brughetti, 114-5

15) Chale, "Distinguished friend…" It is also worth noting that Chale spent her years in Paris living on the Ile St-Louis ("I lived on the Ile St-Louis and swore that I would finish my life there"), another urban space dramatically delimited by the natural environment, with the Seine surrounding its residential neighborhood much as the Río de la Plata bordered Quilmes.

16)Brughetti, 115.

17) Neuman, 212-3.

18) Ibid, 213.

19) Chale, “Yo busco al paisaje…” Untitled draft of a document by the artist dated June 1947. Collection of James Judd.

20) Ibid.

21) Chale, “Viajes de Gertrudis: Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador” and “Viajes de Gertrudis: Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, del 30 Abril 1945 al 15 Nov. 46,” two undated typed-draft variations of Chale's own travel account, each with handwritten editing corrections by the artist. Collection of James Judd. All details of Chale's trip that follow are from these documents unless otherwise noted.

22) Marquez Miranda, Fernando, Huacos, cultura chancay. Texto por F. Marquez Miranda. 20 fotos por Grete Stern y Horacio Coppola (Buenos Aires: Ediciones de la llanura, 1943).

23) "Siglo XX: El grupo indigenista," Museo de Arte de Lima, descriptive text from the permanent collection of Republican art. See also Jorge Falcón, José Sabogal (Lima: Instituto Sabogal de Arte, 1986).

24) Brughetti, 115.

25) The writing fragments that I cite seem, in fact, to have been pieces that Chale was working on with the intent of publishing them in various forms.

26) Bonino Gallery, Gertrudis Chale. Exhibit catalog. See also Neuman, 213. There are some inconsistencies between the Bonino catalog and Neuman's account of Chale's activities from 1947-1954. Neuman implies that Chale showed her work at the São Paulo museum in the late 1940s before showing at the Galleria Selecta in Rome, and claims that it was in Rome that she won the 1948 and 1951 prizes. But the Bonino catalog states that Chale "was to have shown her work" in São Paulo at the invitation of the museum director, P. M. Bardi, suggesting that she was not able to do so before her death. The Bonino catalog does not link her 1948 and 1951 prizes to a National Salon in Rome, but rather lists them without mention of any city or country, which would make it seem evident that they were prizes awarded by the Society of Watercolorists and Engravers in Buenos Aires for works shown at the National Salon there. A telegram giving notice of one of the awards, saved with her papers, reinforces this. Furthermore, the Bonino catalog makes clear that the exhibit of her work in the Galleria d'Arte Selecta in Rome was organized by the Bonino Gallery itself after her death, in 1956.

27) Brughetti, 111-2.

28) Neuman adds that she was on her way back from a trip to Chile.

29) Neuman, 209.

30) Among the works she exhibited in Lima during her 1946 trip was a tempera painting entitled Pisco desde el avión.